In Tibetan highlands, the people of the Homo tribe in Gyenya lived according to new evidence. This is the first time that fossils associated with the species have been found outside the Gyenyosziva Cave. The ability to adapt to such extreme conditions was previously only associated with Homo sapiens.
The remains of the people of Gyenyiszova were discovered in 2008 in the Gyenyiszova Cave in the southern part of Siberia, in the Altai Mountains, named after the species. Since the remains have been found only in the cave, anthropologists know very little about it. According to the knowledge, the Pianists lived in Asia before today’s man conquered the world for tens of thousands of years. According to the results presented in the Nature magazine, the people of Gyenyiszova could pass on to the modern man the gene that helps survive on highlands.
First, the fossils associated with human beings were identified in the area outside of the cave: a lower jaw bone was found in the Baisija karst cave at the Tibetan plateau, at a height of 3280 meters, writes the BBC.
Bone called uranium-thorium was determined on the bone called Xiamen, which means that the bone can be 160,000 years old. Jean Jacques Hublin, a researcher at the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig, co-authored the study that it was surprising to find evidence of the existence of an ancient human race at such heights.
“It is obvious to the ancestors of man, the man of Neanderthal, the man of Gyenyi, the early forms of Homo sapiens, that these species have limited ability to adapt to extreme conditions,” the expert said. Neanderthal remains have been found in many places in Europe, and these sites have been studied by experts for a century and a half. “The highest locations are 2000 meters high. There are not many of these, and probably Neanderthals could hunt in the summer, ”Hublin said.
On the Tibetan plateau he found that the plateau obviously provided people with sufficient resources to live there and not only to visit it occasionally. Since the experts did not find DNA in the Xiao-jaw bone, a protein was extracted from one of the grinding teeth, which was tested by the primer-protein analysis method.
“Our protein analysis shows that the Xiao-jaw bone belongs to a hominin population that is closely related to people from the Gyenyiszova Cave,” said co-author Frido Welker, a colleague at the University of Copenhagen. Hominin is a strain of the hominidae subfamily of the human genesis, the homo species of the evolutionary family tree.
The discovery explains how the individuals found in the Gyenyosiva Cave might have a gene variant that protects them from high levels of hypoxia, that is, oxygen deficiency. It has been a mystery so far, as the Siberian Cave is just 700 meters above sea level.
Today’s Tibetans and neighboring peoples have the same gene variant that probably originates from the fact that Homo sapiens has been mixed with the folk man thousands of years ago. “We can only assume that in such an environment, natural selection has preserved any mutation that facilitates existence in an oxygen-poor atmosphere. The theory explains how this mutation came to today’s Tibetans, ”Hublin said.